Basics Of Object Oriented Programming

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Programming languages are essential for any computer software to function properly. There are many aspects of programming language. One such important aspect is object oriented programming. In this article, we will discuss what is object oriented programming and everything that you need to know about object oriented programming concepts. 

What Is Object Oriented Programming?

This programming paradigm focuses on classes and objects. A software program is divided into basic, reusable bits of code blueprints (typically called classes), which are then used to generate individual instances of objects (or instances of objects). Programming languages with object-oriented features include Object Oriented Programming C++ and Python object oriented programming.

If you want to construct precise, tangible objects, a class is a blueprint. Cars and dogs are two examples of wide groups that share features. These classes specify what characteristics an instance of this type will have, such as color, but not the actual value of those attributes for a given object or instance of this type. 

Classes can also include functions, called methods, that are available exclusively to objects of that kind. Classes can also contain variables in Object Oriented Programming in C++. Functions within the class execute actions that are useful to the object. So, our Car class may include a function repaint that changes the car’s color property. 

To make this function available exclusively to objects of type Car, we define it within the Car class, making it into a method. It is a blueprint for creating distinct things. Like myCar or golden retriever, they are concrete instances of the abstract class. For each property defined in the class, each object can have a unique value and vice versa.

It is then assigned a class of objects that describes the data it contains, and any logic sequences that may be used to alter the data. Each different logic sequence is referred to as a “method”. Objects can interact with each other using well-defined interfaces referred to as “messages”.

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Features Of Object-Oriented Programming

  • Complex things are represented by basic structures in the Object Oriented Programming model
  • It is possible to employ reusable Object Oriented Programming components in different applications
  • Polymorphism allows for class-specific behavior
  • Classes are easier to debug because they typically contain all the information they need
  • Encapsulation safeguards information

So, this was which feature is needed to make a programming language object oriented. Now let us see the structure of Object Oriented Programming. 

Structure Of Object Oriented Programming

Structure Of Object Oriented Programming

The structure, or building blocks, of object-oriented programming, include:

  • Classes

Classes are user-defined data types that function as the blueprint for individual objects, properties, and methods. When we build a class, we are creating a blueprint for the structure of methods and attributes. From this blueprint, individual objects can be instantiated, or generated as needed.

Classes have fields for attributes, and methods for behaviors, as well as methods for behaviors and behaviors. A dog’s name and birthday may be found in its properties, while its methods include bark() and updateAttendance().

  • Objects

Objects are instances of a class generated with data that is expressly defined. They can be actual world things or abstract entities, depending on the type of object. If you declare a class at the beginning, the only object that is defined is the description of the class. Object Oriented Programming contains objects, of course. 

As an example, in the code sample below, Rufus is an instance of the Dog class. A variable in JavaScript is called an object. In JavaScript, objects may also be declared without a class template, as seen at the beginning of this article. Objects have states and actions, and they can be manipulated. “State” is defined by data, such as a dog’s name, birthday, and other information. They’re like methods that an item can take on.

  • Methods

In a class, methods explain the actions of an object. Class definitions begin each method with a reference to an instance object, which is then passed to the method. Subroutines embedded in an object are also referred to as “instance methods.” Reusability or keeping functionality contained to one object at a time are two of the most used programming approaches. 

Methods are a way of describing behavior. methods are used to execute actions; they may return information about an object, or alter an object’s data. In the class declaration, the method’s code is defined. A class’s methods can be invoked when an object is created. Bark() function is defined in Dog class and called on Rufus object. 

Data is often modified, updated, or deleted by the methods employed. It’s okay if a method doesn’t update data, though. The bark() function, for example, doesn’t update any data since barking doesn’t alter any of the properties of the Dog class: name, birth date, or age. A new day will be added to a Dog’s attendance record when this method is called. When paying Owners at the end of the month, it is vital to track attendance.

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  • Attributes

In the class template, attributes are specified as the state of an object. Data will be saved in the attribute field of objects. Attributes of a class belong to that class. Attributes are the stored information. In the Class template, attributes are defined. When objects are instantiated, the Attributes field contains data.

The data in the object’s attributes fields define the object’s state. A puppy and a dog, for example, could be treated differently at a pet summer camp. Depending on the dog’s age, the program may manage the dog differently depending on its birthday.

Main Principles Of Object Oriented Programming

Main Principles Of Object Oriented Programming

Programming in an object-oriented manner is based on the principles of the following idea:


The concept of encapsulation is introduced. If all relevant information is held within an object, and only selected information is revealed, then this concept applies to the design of the item. A specified class contains the implementation and state of each object.

It’s a class that other objects cannot access, nor can they make any modifications to it. There is a list of functions or methods that can only be called by them. As a result of this data concealing feature, programs are more secure, and unintentional data corruption is prevented.


Objects only expose internal mechanisms required for the usage of other objects, concealing any superfluous implementation code. The functionality of the class can be expanded. This approach can make it easier for developers to make modifications or additions over time.


Inheritance Classes can reuse code from other classes. Relationships and subclasses between objects may be assigned, allowing developers to reuse similar functionality while preserving a distinct hierarchy. This characteristic of Object Oriented Programming forces a more comprehensive study of data, lowers development time, and assures a better degree of correctness.


In addition, objects might take on more than one appearance. To reduce the requirement for duplicating code, the program will identify whether meaning or usage is essential for each execution of an object from a parent class. Create a child class to expand the functionality of your parent class, and you’re done! Multiple object kinds can flow via the same interface in Object Oriented Programming Java. 

Examples Of Object Oriented Programming Language

As the first object-oriented programming language, Simula is recognized with this distinction. However, many other programming languages are used today with Object Oriented Programming. There are, however, certain programming languages that match better with Object Oriented Programming than others. Programs deemed to be pure Object Oriented Programming treat everything as an object just like Object Oriented Programming Python.

Procedural processes may be included in other programming languages that are designed primarily for object-oriented programming (Object Oriented Programming). Other prominent pure Object Oriented Programming languages include the following:

  • Ruby
  • Scala
  • JADE
  • Emerald
  • Object Oriented Programming in Java
  • Object Oriented Programming in Python
  • Object Oriented Programming with C++

Drawbacks Of Object Oriented Programming

For a variety of reasons, the object-oriented programming approach has been criticized by programmers. Data-centric software development is overemphasized in Object Oriented Programming. Algorithms or computation are underemphasized. For example, Object Oriented Programming C++ can also be more difficult to create and build.

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Every Object Oriented Programming Concepts

Object Oriented Programming demands the programmer plan ahead and thinks about the structure of the program before beginning to code. Simple, reusable classes can be used to create instances of things. As a whole, applying Object Oriented Programming provides for improved data structures and reusability, saving time in the long term.

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